美勤留学 > GMATGRE > GMAT语法 >
文章列表
  • [查看全文]关系代词 & 判断介词和关系代词
    关系代词  关系代词(一般情况下)that 可用在从句做主语,谓动词的宾语,但是不能做介词的宾语。  which指物,在从句中作主语,谓语或宾语;  who在从句中作主语;  whom在从句中作宾语;  where在从句中修饰表地点的名词,做地点状语;  when在从句中通常修饰表时间的名词,做时间状语;  why在从句中做原因状语,先行词通常是"reason"  有时why也可用for+which代替。  例:A doctor is a person ‖who looks after people's health.  主语 谓语 先行词 定语从句修饰先行词判断介词和关系代词  方法一: 用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。不及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系副词或者是介词加关系代词;而及物动词后接宾语,则要求用关系代词。例如:   This is the mountain village where I stayed last year.   I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.   判断改错(注:先显示题,再显示答案,横线;用不同的颜色表示出。)   (错) This is the mountain village wher
  • [查看全文]先行词和关系词
    1)Whoever spits in public will be punished here. (Whoever 可以用 anyone who 代替)  2)The parents will use what they have to send their son to technical school. (what 可以用all that代替)  但这两句句子已经不是定语从句了,是名词性从句。因为定语从句一定要有先行词,而名词性从句没有。将Whoever、what分别用Anyone who、all that代替后,才是定语从句,先行词分别是Anyone、all。  由as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句,as和which可代整个主句,相当于and this或and that。As一般放在句首,which在句中。   As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health.   The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us.   典型例题  1)Alice received an invitation from her boss, ___came as a surprise.  A. it B. that C. which D. he   答案C。  此为非限定性从句,不能用 that修饰,而用which.,it 和he 都使后句成为句子,
  • [查看全文]先行词和关系词2
    一、as / which 特殊定语从句的先行成分  1. 形容词或形容词短语作先行成分, 具有形容词意义的介词短语也可以充当先行成分,如:My grandmother's house was always of great importance to me, as my own is.  在一定的语言环境里,有些名词可以具有形容词的性质。这些名词主要是那些表示人的身份、职业、状态的名词。值得一提的是,在这些具有形容词性质的名词之后,引导定语从句的关系代词不能用who / whom.  2. 动词短语先行成分。  这种动词短语既可是限定形式也可是非限定形式。如果是动态动词短语,它们在从句中就一般有限定或非限定形式的替代动词do和as / which一起代替。do可以出现,也可以不出现,但不能用其它动词代替。  3. 句子作先行成分。  这句子可以是整个主句也可以只是主句中的一个从句。有时是连续几个句子,有时甚至可以是一个完整的故事。二、as/which特殊定语从句在句中的位置  由于先行成分的构成成分不同,as/which特殊定语从句在句中的位置有以下几种情况:  1. 形容词做先行成分时:形容词或形容词短语(含具有形容词性质的名词)作先行成分,as / which特殊定
  • [查看全文]关系代词that 的用法
    (1)不用that的情况   (a) 在引导非限定性定语从句时。  (错)The tree, that is four hundred years old, Is very famous here.   (b) 介词后不能用。   We depend on the land from which we get our food.   We depend on the land that/which we get our food from.  (2) 只能用that作为定语从句的关系代词的情况   (a) 在there be 句型中,只用that,不用which。   (b) 在不定代词,如:anything, nothing, the one, all等作先行词时,只用that,不用which。   (c) 先行词有the only, the very,the same,the last,just修饰时,只用that。   (d) 先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时,只用that,不能用which。.   (e) 先行词既有人,又有物时。  (f) 先行词指物,在主句中作表语时.  (g) 为了避免重复.  (h)先行词是the way或the reason时,that可作关系副词,也可省略  (i) 主句的主语是疑问词who /which时  举例:  Is this the book that you b
  • [查看全文]难点分析
    (一)限制性定语从句只能用that的几种情况  1、当先行词是anything, everything, nothing (something 除外), few, all, none, little, some等代词时,或者是由every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much,each等修饰时  (1) Have you taken down everything (that) Mr. Li has said?  (2) There seems to be nothing (that) seems impossible for him in the world.  (3) All that can be done has been done.  (4) There is little (that) I can do for you.  注意1:部分时候that可以省略,如部分例句将that用括号括住。  注意2:当先行词指人时,偶尔也可以用who  (4) Any man that/.who has a sense of duty won’t do such a thing.  2、当先行词被序数词修饰  The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben.  3、当先行词被形容词最高级修饰时  This is t
  • [查看全文]难点分析2
    (二)关系代词as和which引导的定语从句as和which引导非限制性定语从句,有相同之处也有不同之处。具体情况是:  1、As和which都可以在定语从句中做主语或者宾语,代表前面整个句子。  (1) He married her, as/which was natural.  (2) He was honest, as/which we can see.  2、as 引导非限制性定语从句,可放在主句之前,或者主句之后,甚至可以切割一个主句;which引导的非限制性定语从句只能放在主句之后。另外,as有正如……,正像……的意思  (1) As is known to all, China is a developing country.  (2) He is from the south, as we can see from his accent.  (3) John, as you know, is a famous writer.  (4) He has been to Paris more than several times, which I don’t believe.  注意:当主句和从句存在逻辑上的因果关系时,常用which。  (5) Tom was always late for school, which made his teacher angry.  3、当先行词受suc
  • [查看全文]GMAT考试句子改错给出的小建议
    一、 在GMAT句子改错从句中,对以下连接词和引导词要保持高度警惕:1) which(或代词it)绝对不可指代前面的整个句子;2) because不可引导名词性从句;3) 宾语从句中引导词that一般不能省略;4) if绝不可以引导名词性从句,如要表示是否,只能用whether引导;5) 对不作为介词宾语的事物作限定性修饰,只用that而不用which。而which仅用于引导对介词宾语进行修饰的限定性从句和引导非限定性从句。二、在require、demand等表建议、命令意义的词之后的that从句,要求用虚拟语气动词,即动词原形,不加should。三、决对不可以单独使用that指代前面的单数或不可数名词,而一般是用that of+n.结构指代或换用其他表达方式。四、 GMAT句子改错不可以单独使用this、these来指代前面出现的单数或复数名词,而要通过换用其他人称代词,或重复前面出现的名词或者改变句子结构来避免这样非正式且模糊的指代。如 sth. of this kind, like this /these等模糊表达均要用such+n.(n.即重复this、these所 指代的对象)来取代,意为这些…。另外,在such…that结构中,such只修饰具体名词,而不修饰抽象名词(如 rapidity、severity等)。五、 在通
  • [查看全文]GMAT考试句子改错给出的小建议之二
    一、在GMAT改错题中,ETS倾向于用主动语态而非被动语态,当用主动或被动语态的选项在语法和句意上都无错误时,选择用主动语态表达的选项,即主动优先原则。二、 在GMAT句子改错中,关于being的以下使用需要避免:1) being+n.2) being+adj.3) as being+n./adj./v.-ving.;GMAT认为在以上表达中,being完全多余。三、当对一动-宾结构进行替代时,不用do it, 一律用do so.;四、 介词短语:on account of, because of, despite(in spite of ), as a result of之后只跟简单的各词短语。若其后跟的是动名词或名词所有格+动名词短语,或名词短语之后 用复杂的现在分词来修饰时,应改为与其相同意义的连词because, although等引导的从句形式。五、要注意GMAT句子改错中几种简单的表达方式:1) n. that is (are) adj. 必然要换为ad.+n.的名词短语结构,如a man who is poor的选项必错,而应选含有a poor man的选项。2) 当表示谓语部分,尤其是表示实义动词的含义时,就直接用其动词形式表示,而不要用名词形式或形容词形式,如:be a cause就一定会被cause(动词